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Topic :: Management theory and practice
Subject :: Management
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1. INTRODUCTION: – SWOT analysis referred to as swot matrix. It is a strategic planning technique accustomed to facilitate company in Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats. This analysis is related to business competition or organisation. It has four cell matrixes. This analysis with regard to FMCG (fast-moving consumer good) companies constitute to consumer goods having fast moving capability in the economy with 19% of economy share. These types of companies are consumer goods dealer that cost relatively low. Companies with these types of goods have great scope for growth, competitor, income levels and consumer budget with different factors. The given table below in relation to SWOT matrix of FMCG sector which companies adopt:-
STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES OPPORTUNITIES THREATS
|1) What company excels.2) Distinctive options.
3) Advanced technology.
4) Resources with reduced cost.
5) Market strategies.
|1) Corporations disadvantages.2) Reduced optimum sales.
3) Improvement in some fields.
4) Lack of capital.
5) High levels of debts.
|1) Favourable external factor.2) Tendency to improve operations.
3) Exploring new market segments.
4) Expanding core performance and operations.
|1) External factors affecting company.2) New regulations that threaten company’s ongoing environment.
3) Consumer Trends.
4) Common Obstacles.
Conceptual clarity AMUL is a milk cooperative founded by Mr. Verghese kurian in 1946. It is an acronym for “Anand Milk Union Limited”, he is also called father of white revolution in India. It is the largest milk and dairy products manufacturer and one of iconic brands in India. Amul produces milk and gathers product it is distributes more than one million litres of milk every day. Now we will see insight into AMUL’s transition from being a cooperative society to most recognize and respected brands in country.
STRENGTHS OF AMUL
As the word strength explains functions internally, from its people, its process or the resources employed by it. Below we will discuss strengths.
|1} Investment in Technology– Amul has experienced rapid growth in the last few decades. This company is repeatedly investing in flexible and revolutionary technologies within the dairy products with revenue of Rs. 50,000 Crore last year.||2} Production capacity– It is one of the largest manufactures of milk dairy and dairy products in the world, distributing 18 litres of milk per day. It is managed by the Gujarat cooperative Milk Marketing Federation limited.|
|3} Market share– Amul has transformed itself into the market leader of milk and dairy products in country. Amul has expanded its ice cream product and business portfolio by opening standalone with 30% market share. It has also introduced its flavoured milk.||4} Strong brand value– It is one of the most recognisable and valuable brands. The AMUL GIRL, the company’s mascot feature on its advertisements is one of the oldest and most iconic brand ideal which Amul uses even today. No other milk dealing company has come near amul’s competition.|
|5} Quality– One of the primary resources for AMUL being one of the most trusted brands in India and having a strong and loyal customer base and maintaining transparency.||6} Massive consumer base– The company has a large consumer base which spreads across the urban and rural regions of the country. This leads to high leverage.|
WEAKNESSES OF AMUL
Just like strengths a human being has weakness among themselves, in the same way there are certain internal weaknesses of brand making the company vulnerable. Some are explained below-
|1} High operational cost– It has a high operational cost due to its massive size and complex structure. This becomes a problem for a company while experiencing fall in demand. Depending heavily upon the dairy unions and communities for its supply of milk, as demands are changing for communities charging high prices for their produce.|
|2} Lack of Success in defined Areas of Portfolio Expansion– Amul has enlarged its product portfolio to add products such as butter, ghee, buttermilk, flavored milk, ice cream, chocolates, cheese, creams, sweets ;etc. However, not every product within its portfolio has reached the same success.|
|3} Legal Issues– The company has faced legal issues recently, where in Amul was disregarding the brand and products of its rivals. Unilever Limited filed a suit against Amul in the Bombay High Court, causing lots of embarrassment and humiliation.|
Opportunities of AMUL
Strengths can be converted to opportunities; Companies have enormous ways to improve themselves. Below there is are opportunities to be worked on-
|1} Per Capita Milk consumption-Being India highest consuming nation of milk and essential for our diet. With increase in||2} International Expansion– It serves global markets, expanding into overseas and Asian markets aggressively targeting||3} Product Portfolio Expansion-Company can invest in research and development or adopt mergers for extensive|
|population increases the consumption of products leading to growth.IT expands its production capacities and acquires new consumers.||Indian’s living in these countries. It can organically broaden its international presence and consumer base.||distribution network selling new products, the considerable image and trust of the consumers will also enable easier acceptance.|
Threats for AMUL-
|1} Increasing Competition– Due to other companies such as Kwality walls, Mother dairy, Avin, Verka,HUL etc are increasing competition for Amul. In the ice cream sector Amul has competition among othercompanies as well.||2} Growing trend of veganism in India– Veganism is new trend implying people to not consume dairy products. This impacts demand for dairy products. If the popularity of veganism increases day by day this willdefinitely affect the organisation.|
Conclusion- the Strength, weakness, opportunity, threat analysis of Amul enables us to understand the change in organisation from dairy collaborative to one of the most valuable and honourable brands in the country. The brand entices a sense of national price among the consumers, and this brand image can be further improved by entering overseas market, it stands victorious and emerges as a winner at all fronts. Company has to take the push and retain confidence in expanding global markets. With adequate advertising and promotions, Amul can do achieve worldwide success.
2. Introduction– Just in time and Lean production are though related to each other in many ways sharing same grounds as well as these are most frequently used systems to regulate production and ensure profitability. JIT is used for product regulation manufacturing workflow procedure aimed at reducing flow at times, costs within production system and the issuing of materials. On the other hand Lean production deals in utilisation of efficiency focusing on elimination of wastes and reducing it to the most.
MG MOTORS or Morris Garages is a British marquee known for its sports cars and mini cars. It was founded by Cecil Kimber. Over the years ownership has changed many hands across diversified business conglomerates to finally being owned by CHINESE state-run SAIC motor. But as a consultant, I can only recommend and give my opinion and workers can adopt any of two methods as both techniques will eliminate wasteful material and processes.
To make them understand about both concepts in detail. We will study it properly,
Lean production– Company can implement lean production aim at the following steps-
- Eliminate unnecessary materials and
- Streamline productions.
- Provide customers with the highest value of the rupee.
There are many methods for eliminating wastes that organisation have followed over the years and are being taken into presence now.
1] TIMWOODS 2] 5S 3] SIX SIGMA 4] Kaizen
1] TIMWOODS – one of the approaches that aim to identify removal of wastes. This was developed by Taiichi Ohno, the Chief Engineer at Toyota, as part of the Toyota production These eight wastes are explained in the table. Referred to by the acronym ‘TIMWOODS’
|Transportation Time wastage, resources and cost unnecessary moving products.||InventoryWastes resulting from excess products and materials that are not being processed.||MotionTime wastage and effort related to unnecessary middle man.||WaitingTime wasted for waiting for next step process.|
|Overprocessing Wastes related to more work or higher standard than required.||Overproduction Making more products then demanded||DefectsProduct or service failure not meeting customers’ expectations.||Skills Underutilisation of talent, skills and knowledge.|
2] 5S- It is a system for assembling spaces so work can be performed productively, effectively, and guardedly. This system focus on setting up things where it belong and making the enterprise clean, which makes it easier for people to do their jobs without wasting time.
5S comes from Japanese words often translated in English
|Japanese word||English words||Explanation|
|1 SEIRI||SORT||This involves improving working area to determine what needs to present and what can be removed.|
|2 SEITON||SET IN ORDER||After cutting down extra clutter, work groups can make their own strategies and see throughremaining items.|
|3 SEISO||SHINE||Performing regular maintenance on equipment and machinery that may pertain to no loss situation.|
|4SEIKETSU||STANDARDIZE||After deduction of extra stuff. Establish systems that turns out efforts in habits making standard operating procedures.|
|5SHITSUKE||SUSTAIN||This means process for keep running of 5S not in a long term projects but every project, that is when business will notice positive results,|
3] SIX SIGMA – Six Sigma started in the 19th It was adopted by Motorola engineers and has been ranking among one of the foremost methodologies for lean production. The main aim focus behind people in six sigma people is terminology for different belts. One method DMAIC is followed acronym for define, measure, analyze, improve, control.
4] KAIZEN THEORY-The name KAIZEN is taken from a Japanese word ‘for improvement’. It is a constant improvement where strategies are executed at all levels that work together energetically to achieve regular and incremental refinement to the manufacturing process.
Change something for the better. The cycle of KIAZEN process is referred to as PDCA
- Plan: develop a hypothesis
- Do: Run experiment
- Check : evaluate results
- Act: refine your experiment, and then start a new
DRAWBACKS OF LEAN PRODUCTION
- Concentrates on multiple processes which create confusion.
- It places heavy emphasis on present without leaving room for changing forecast.
- Production will suffer.
- Understanding economies of scale are next to impossible.
- Examination of production at enterprise level is difficult.
JUST IN TIME is an inventory management method in which only goods are received from suppliers when they are needed. The main goal of Just in time is to increase in efficiency in order of planning the use of higher quality software to carry out process till delivery. Here are some important effects of the just in time inventory management system:
- Reduces inventory waste- eliminates overproduction of goods by producing what the customer needs without the risk of unusable
- Decrease the warehouse holding cost- reduces warehousing cost because it being expensive, keeping it to minimum without needing
- Gives more control to the producer by producing according to demand in the market affects the inventory and company altogether.
- Delivery local sourcing- manufacturing only when order is placed by transporting from local
- Smaller reserves- for finance procurement essential stocks are obtained with less working It means carrying out activities when right time follows.
Process of working of JUST IN TIME – First step customer places an order with the manufacturer. Second step order is placed to suppliers. Next come materials needed to meet customer needs. Last step is assembling of materials received and product is sold to customer.
DRAWBACKS OF JUST-IN-TIME
- Order reworking is difficult.
- Dependence upon supplier’s performance and timelines.
- Affects environment the most.
- During a disruption no excess stock will be available to be relied on.
- Needs careful tracking.
Conclusion– In my point of view to summarise the lean production and Just in time process both can be used By MG Motors. Ultimately end result of both will reduce wastage. End goal of lean production is to improve production for sake of customer by keeping best selling products in stock. On the other hand, improvement with JIT encourages facing problems at first time for achieving best results.
3(A) INTRODUCTIONà Lemon Tree Hotels (LTH) was incorporated on June 02 1992. The Company is affianced in the dealing of developing; possess acquiring renovating operating managing and upgrading hotels motels. It is a prime motel chain that provides a wide range of accommodations all across the country, has suffered substantial losses as a result of the pandemic. Although this corporation has experienced a huge amount of trouble during this lockdown, many corporations have also faced a number of problems during this lockdown period. To save company in this significant time there are many forces that foster the growth of management in Lemon tree.
CONCEPTUAL Clarity Although, Management has been practiced from years but it mainly gained importance after industrialization era and are backed by many forces such as Political, Economic and Social. In next paragraphs we will discuss these forces in detail.
- Political forcesà normally, political factors that affect the organization are external These are out of company’s control. Due to Nationwide lockdown hotel chains have experienced extreme difficulty following some rules and regulations. Overcrowding was not allowed, admitting certain norms. Travel bans killed the hotel and tourism industry. In this period the hotel chains enjoyed tax reforms. Due to government having power they slowed down their processing.
- Social Factorsà due to pandemic affecting India and having huge effect on expenditure. These forces arises from the values and beliefs in a society, wherein mutually understood. Though hotel chains gave huge discount on rooms to earn for livelihood but these factors made it difficult because safety was the foremost priority for people. Travelling reduced during this phase as many people avoided going outside, considering hotels as main hotspots.
- Economic Factorsà it is responsible for formation of base market economy such as, private ownership, economic freedom, and competitive markets. The competition of hotels in the economy is increasing day by day which also affected the growth of lemon tree in severe These factors included economic growth, interest, exchange, inflation, and wage rates, minimum wage, working hours, unemployment and credit availability and cost of living. This gave a big blow to not only investors but also to employees who earned from company because no output was generated during this time. Though hotel chains gave huge discount on rooms to earn for livelihood but these factors made it difficult because safety was the foremost priority for people. This also led to slow services because many people were retrenched.
Conclusionà the above factors affected the Lemon tree chains not only in an outer manner but overall revenue reduced. I will suggest them to properly analyze the surroundings and the time will come when they will top the surroundings.
3(B) Introductionà lemon tree the hotel management chain need to evaluate the potential suggestions for their customer and supply chain contracts through this difficult phase if COVID-19 will affect their capability to perform vowed obligations and evaluate what rights they might have if counterparty is unable to perform. I might encourage them to observe and apply contingency approach one of the part of Modern approach so as to face pandemic effectively.
Concept clarity Firstly, I will help them to understand contingency approach well. This modern approach is a management theory that suggests the most suitable style of management is depending upon the circumstances of the situation and that acquiring a single, rigid style is inefficient in the long term. The primary contributors of contingency approach are Burns and Stalker, John Woodward. The managers who follow contingency typically pay attention to both the situation and their own styles and make efforts to ensure both interact efficiently. This method contrasts with other forms of leadership, whereby personality and individual makeup predict patterns of management and responses to give
situations overtime. This is beneficial to organizations because of the capability for learning from specific situations and using these lessons to influence future management of the same or similar situations. The ability to adapt to outward pressures and changes is also superiority.
Contingency theory may also produce more well-rounded leaders who are able to develop their skills in multiple areas and this will help lemon tree in certain aspects which are explained below
- Non-universality of management theory-this explains the usage at world-wide level.
- Contingency– the situations change as per management decisions.
- Human relations– Skills of the manager play the most important role to accommodate and stabilize change.
- Information and communication– this system deals with effective environmental changes.
- Provides realistic view of organization. 1 It is not a theoretical base.
- Discard the universal validity of principles. 2 Executive actions are not feasible.
- Managers are situation-oriented. 3 It does not prescribe a course of action
- 4 Lends innovative and creative management principles. 4 Difficult to analyze every part.
Conclusionà To conclude, This approach will affect organization in every field not only encouraging the managers but from top most to the worker level. Organizational size, Nature of business, environmental, uncertainty, individual differences also make the contingency approach efficient. Senior management can take of responsibility over methods to be followed, development or implementation of relevant legal and regulatory obligations. It helps in prioritizing the conflict arising in the company.