307-12 SAQ Answers


Question 1:

Cognitive psychology has been criticized because cognitive processes cannot be directly observed or measured. Discuss how cognitive processes can be studied even though they are not directly observed. Illustrate your answer using two cognitive psychology research studies.

Question 2:

Explain why it is advantageous having many different cues for depth? As part of your answer, describe three different cues we can use to perceive depth.

Question 3:

In the area of Object Recognition, it is argued that Face Recognition is “Special”. What is this argument and what is meant by “Special”? Discuss how well the argument is substantiated by research findings?

Question 4:

What exactly is the “Stroop Interference Effect”? How is it measured? What does it tell us about processes that may underlie visual attention?

Question 5:

Imagine you are talking to a 2nd year psychology student, and they say that they are having trouble memorising information for exams. Luckily for them you are studying cognitive psychology and so you are able to explain to them what elaborative rehearsal is and how it will help. You are also able to provide them with some tips on how to incorporate elaborative rehearsal into their studies. But the 2nd year student knows they shouldn’t just believe everything they are told, so they want some evidence that elaborative rehearsal will help. Explain what elaborative rehearsal is and how it is thought to improve memory. Also provide two different ways that elaborative rehearsal could be incorporated into a study routine. As part of your answer discuss one empirical study that provides support for your argument.

Question 6:

Define and distinguish between Explicit and Implicit Memory. What are the experimental methods and, at least one, of the research findings that have underpinned the need for this important distinction in memory theory?

Question 7:

You have just had a heated argument with a family member about what happened a few days ago. Although you were both there and equally involved, in your opinion, their version of the event is not only wrong, it is crazy! You feel confident that your memory of the event is correct, so you think that either they are lying or there is something seriously wrong with their memory. Little do you know, the family member is feeling and thinking the exact same way. Provide a cognitive explanation of the above scenario. Your answer must address the underlying cognitive process involved and should be supported by a description of at least one empirical study. You should also address the fact that both people involved in the scenario are feeling confident in their memory of the event.

Question 8:

Describe and evaluate the experimental work suggesting that concept judgments often rely on prototypes and typicality.

Question 9:

What are “garden-path” sentences, and why are they more confusing in printed than in spoken form? In your answer, cite at least one study purporting to explain the printed/spoken anomaly.

Question 10:

Research suggests that the environment a person lives in may influence cognitive processing. Describe and discuss two cross cultural studies that suggest cognition may be shaped by environment

Question 11:

Define and distinguish between Visual Imagery and Spatial Imagery. Describe some research that underlies the need for this distinction.

Question 12:

Why do we use heuristics if they can lead to errors in decision making? As part of your answer describe two different heuristics and provide a real-life example (that is not covered in your text book) of when each can lead to errors.