The current assignment is a case study on Human Resource Management which is primarily divided into major assignments. The first assignment discusses evaluating performance appraisal method and also recommends at least two changes to mitigate that. Besides this, assignment 2 totally reflects on job analysis. It also highlights some strategies adopted with regard to Job analysis. It also focuses on enlisting some activities related to Empowerment. In addition to this, it too depicts certain strategies that are required in regard to good empowerment. There is clear relevance of Employee Engagement along with staffing officer recruitment procedure. In this concern, it briefly highlights three crucial steps for Organizational change. It finally commends significant reasons relative to resistance reduction.
Q1) Evaluating performance appraisal method
Performance appraisal refers to systematic method that defines an individual performance fashionably. Managers apply skills related to “People Management” in order to handle their workforces. Selection indulges choosing from available candidates who can execute the job successfully. They primarily focus on several dimensions in regard to appraise people’s performance. This appraisal technique requires detailed discussion, planning and reviewing employee performance. This appraisal is important to identify performance gap and improve them through reward system, manager review, self assessment, customer review, peer review and subordinate review. Few common errors in this process are biased attitude in ratings due to prejudice, or maintain neutrality to avoid conflicts. To mitigate this issue MBO (management by objectives) strategy is effective. As stated by Shaout and Yousif (2014), applying the scenario of MBOs, increase in sales percentage of individual employees depends on number of personnel department sales. During appraisal meetings, employees enlist the resources that are needed to accomplish their objectives. Thus, Management by Objective appraisal is treated to be ideal in regard to communication as well as interaction among employees. Also, narrative-essay appraisal takes a relevant amount of document review, preparation as well as drafting time in order to generate a well assessment of performance.
Various appraisal methods are adopted by organizations in order to ensure fair appraisals to the employees. According to Paillé and Chen et al. (2014) p. 460, appraisals serve to facilitate communication amongst employees and management, that prompts in conveying expectations of management to their employees and vice versa. Mode of appraisal methods is based on different aspects such as work quality, productivity, duration of training and service. Productivity is assessed much in manufacturing case.
In regard to work quality, precision of work is taken under consideration. Duration of training serves to be an important criterion, where it is expected longest-serving worker deserves one for appraisal. Wegmans in this concern poses a pro-employee surrounding and claims that employees are tempted to be their best resource for welfare of the industry. In words of DeNisi & Murphy (2017), Wegman’s leadership spends energy and time to promoting strong associations with its employees. Both company leadership and HR executives make frequent visit to a store in order to talk to its workers regarding their concerns and manages to share good practices out of this.
Q2) Recommending Changes to Improve
In opinion of Ployhart and Nyberg et al. (2014), HR managers might improve the performance appraisals and prepares them into effective communication, employee development tools and setting of goals within the basic requirements in regard to performance evaluations system. Management by objective and methods of narrative-essay typically needs employee input that can often be modified to generate a formal two-way performance appraisal method. In this concern, Incremental change management is required HRM department to introduce appraisals so that employees feel motivated to work harder. In opinion of DeNisi & Murphy (2017), learning organisations are always open for change management so that they could achieve higher level of problem solving strategy, empowered team, continuous improved customer service and highly effective risk management procedure through innovation. This change management occurs in three steps:
- Unfreeze: explaining reasons of employee performance gap
- Movement: explain benefits of appraisal technique in increasing productivity
- Refreeze: strategy of reviewing performance to sustain change
Certain resistances, for example, lacking trust, disruptive employee behaviour, lacking time management, work pressure could hamper this change management. However, open communication, negotiation and motivation could solve this issue.
Q3) Developing goal setting table
Effective setting of goal serves to be a strategic method in regard to performance appraisal. Employee development works primarily focus on knowledge acquisition, abilities and skills needed for employees in order to facilitate requirements of future job. In words of Beltzer, Nock et al (2014), it is totally based on career advancement, promotional opportunities, and altering strategic needs of organization. However, HR planning specifically applies to attain alignment with respect to organization strategy. It serves to have much effective planning for equal opportunity. Certain basic steps will prompt employees to set particular objectives appropriate to skills, background and aspirations. These include:
|● Identifying short and long-term goals||● Setting task goals and outcome goals||● Identifying the need for achieving goals||● Attributing obstacles||● Creating an action plan|
|Long-term objectives primitively focus on year or months ahead, while short-term objectives relatively focus on upcoming few weeks or days.||Outcome objectives aim for specific result. On contrary, task goals refers to task that requires to be executed in order to attain outcome goals. For example, organizing area of work to enhance output.
|Preparing a list of each and every prospect that is required relative to this. For example, co-workers cooperation, accessing to resources and training.||Considering everything that might serve in regard to achievement of goal. It is necessary to eliminate these barriers as far as developing goal plan is concerned. Examples in this regard include poor management in time, lack in skills, negative attitude or scare of failure.||It is mandatory to formulate step wise action plan in regard to achieving goals. A plan of action is proved to be necessary, particularly if the objective is broad or there seems to be several obstacles in path to overcome.|
Table 1: Goals
(Source: Created by author)
Q4) Analyzing of HRM area involved
HRM prompts as an inevitable result of growing and starting an organization. Education revealed that analytical HRM conception serves to help practitioners in order to know relevant theory and improve analytical skills that can be used in particular situation. Applied by several practitioners of HR, HRM serves to be productive application that people particularly use in order to attain organization’s strategic objectives. It also relatively focuses on satisfaction in regard to employee’s individual requirements. Analyzing a specific area relative to responsibilities and tasks helps to identify abilities, skills and the requisite knowledge. In addition to this, analytical HRM emphasizes the fundamental mission in regard to academic management discipline. In opinion of Ployhart and Nyberg et al. (2014), it is mandatory that HRM should be better integrated with contextual theory in organizational behaviour. HRM understands what management focuses on people and work relative to different contexts. Besides this, it primitively focuses on promoting series of processes which make models, thereby building very stronger links to maintain organizational behaviour and strategic management. In regard to this, it also takes account of both managerial and employee interests and lays the foundational basis for broader social impacts. Particularly, an HRM sets to offer:
- HR planning and deep understanding in regard to employee’s safety and motivation.
- Detailed job analysis related to particular employees segments.
- Recruitment and selection
- Strengthening commitment to employees including their performance development.
- Independent opinion on evaluation of employee attitudes and improving employee relation through promotion, pension, and disciplinary action.
- Information on employee’s commitment and satisfaction by proper performance management by using Pfeffer’s seven dimension of people management. This includes security, employee selection, compensation, and training, reducing employee status distinctions and sharing financial data.
- General attitude and overall situation of employees specific to particular organization.
In addition to this, HRM requires to handle information that enables to serve diverse employee segments.
Q1) a. Explaining Job Analysis
Job analysis refers to a significant through which company hierarchy determine responsibilities and duties, nature of jobs and finally makes important decisions relative to skills, qualifications and knowledge that are required for a worker to perform specific job. In addition to this, Job analysis prompts to understand the genre of tasks that facilitates its importance and their working means. It also depicts method of gathering as well as analyzing information relative to content and human job requirements.
According to Paillé and Chen, this technique clearly demonstrates job placements in a fashionable manner. Most importantly, job analysis depicts the organization of particular jobs within job family. It permits units to assess job progression paths for interested employees. This gives them relevant scopes in regard to increase competition and career advancement. Additional impacts of job analysis are planning of performance development, position advertisements and postings, making employee hiring and recruiting plans. It is necessary to create successful analysis of job which includes reviewing job attributes, analyzing tasks, responsibilities and work duties that employee requires to accomplish in order to fill the position.
b. 4 stages involved in regard to job analysis
The stages for a typical job analysis might vary according procedures applied and number of included jobs. Four important stages in this regard are:
- Planning of job analysis: It is vital that job analysis method is to be planned prior to collection of data from employees and managers. Most significant consideration seems to identify the primitive goals of job analysis.
- Updating and maintaining job descriptions: It might also be inducted as a result commemorating programs of compensation in organization. Another significant target serves to redesign the departmental jobs or organizational design. As argued by Beltzer, Nock et al. (2014), it might prompts to alter the structure in sectors of organization in order to align it better relative to different business strategies.
- Introducing and preparing job analysis: Preparation starts by identification of reviewed jobs. Another crucial step serves to explain and communicate the method to managers, affected employees and other people in this regard, including union stewards. Explanations must address the natural anxieties and concerns relative to situation when someone handles their tasks under close scrutiny.
- Developing Job specifications: At this very stage, analysts focus on preparing job specifications and job descriptions. Once the draft gets successfully completed, they must be clearly reviewed and examined by managers. When finished, descriptions are accordingly distributed by HR department to various managerial posts.
c. Job analysis investigation
After the preparation becomes complete, job analysis can be systematically conducted accordingly. The selected methods set to assess the timeline of project. Sufficient time must be allotted in order to generate information from managers and employees. Questionnaires that are applied must be accompanied through a letter demonstrating the instructions and method in order to return and complete questionnaires related to job analysis. Most prominent methods in regard to job analysis include observation method, Questionnaire method and interview method.
In opinion of Beltzer, Nock et al (2014), observation method in this concern focuses to track and review all non-performed and performed task of an employee and identifies emotional or mental risks and challenges relative to their jobs. Questionnaire method primitively uses methods of job analysis. This can do through getting questionnaires filled form of employees, managers and their superiors too. However, this technique also faces issues of personal bias-ness. In this regard, a severe care should be taken while farming problems for various employee grades. Also, interview method focuses to interview employees so that they can come up with their respective style of working. Moreover, it also assesses problems faced by employees in order to apply specific techniques and skills.
Q2) a. defining organizational Empowerment
In organization, empowerment refers to granting employees the autonomy to ensure a much responsible and active role. In opinion of Balasubramaniam, Ghandi & Sambandamoorthy (2014) This sets to be accomplished through strengthening their effectiveness sense by sharing information, power and attribute to handle their own task to a much possible extent. From the context of organizational culture, empowerment is associated to Individual dimension in Autonomy.
However, empowerment offers some benefits that bring organization success to a possible level. These include:
- It improves decision making policy and communication
- It develops motivation, morale and commitment
- It creates job ownership successfully
- It improves associations with suppliers and customers
- It reduces engagement layers
- It generates innovation and risk-taking abilities
- It enhances job satisfaction
On contrary, certain negative effects of empowerment are:
- Empowerment might not prove to be suitable for many organizations
- Empowerment really needs more manage mental effort
- It might often keep things in an unsettled manner.
b. Strategies adopted in regard to good empowerment
Leaders always dream of having empowered workers. Certain strategies that might serve helpful in this regard are:
- Fostering open communication: It is mandatory that leaders require experience and clear direction that enables them foster open communication fashionably. In opinion of Beltzer, Nock et al (2014), it prompts to provide structured ways to employees in order to reveal their feelings, thoughts and observations that is regularly and easily known.
- Rewarding Self-Improvement: It persistently offers employees to set plan and work on them accordingly. Employees began to feel advance with relative considerable idea of money and promotion. As a result, some entrepreneurs feel so accustomed as far as assessing self-improvement is concerned.
- Encouraging Safe Failure: It provides employees the ideal scope to try updated things in such a way so that it doesn’t put company in any sort of danger. It sets up on creating milestone checkpoints as well as setting up laboratory surroundings where people provokes to examine new ideas as well as success strategies.
c. Listing some Top Empowerment Activities
Empowerment in a business organization can be prompted through relevant activities:
- Openness to Updated Ideas: Empowerment seeks to be significantly better when work manager is inviting and open about new opinions and ideas. Another prospect is that it occurs when managers pretend to listen and care but never execute anything with member’s idea.
- Developing others: as stated by DeNisi & Murphy (2017), it is possible that employees lack skills, expertise or knowledge if they fail to collect relevant ideas. These people require developing their skills that is mandatory for achieving organization’s goal fashionably. There reveals a strong correlation between emphasising of team in regard to high empowerment and development.
- Trusted and Supportive Manager: The skills of manager serve to gain much support and respect of team members. It is another crucial factor in this regard. Empowerment needs energy and extra effort from employees. Employees prove to resist empowerment when there is low trust level in a specific team leader.
- Positive environment for work: The employees feel respected and moral win, when the work environment is positive. Leaders require bringing positive attitude in order to create great working surrounding. When the work surrounding is conflict full, empowerment is tempted to be lower.
d. Obstacles in Empowerment
Some of the significant barriers in regard to empowerment are:
- Lack of clear vision: A guiding and clear vision serves to be strongest tool in regard to empowerment. Without proper vision, it’s easy to enrich maximum effort into working activities that don’t attribute to progress. The consequence in this regard leads to wasted money, time and energy.
- Fear: Creation of people is tempted to be hardest and toughest fear to overcome. People themselves set to be their worst enemy. In opinion of Brown & Matsa (2016), fear stops people from forward moving and when this occurs it prompts to disempowerment immediately. Learning to get go of fear serves to be critical in this aspect.
- Impatience: Patience is required in order to watch growing of ideas and facilitates on becoming successful operation. It is thus mandatory to wait for right thing that will serve as greatest satisfaction and true address specific to needs and desires.
Q3) Employee Engagement and its examples
Employee engagement refers to the extent up to which employees feel passionate relative to their jobs that are committed to organization. In opinion of Beltzer, Nock et al (2014), there are some significant employee engagement strategies:
- Yousician: It primitively focuses on pooling parties together and enables to turn their experience.
- Drift: Drift sets up to alter the way through which companies communicate relative to their visitors with the help of messaging platform.
Q4) a. Recruitment of Staffing Officer
According to this, staffing and recruiting manager prompts to drive and develop a strategy of recruiting that supports company’s growth plan and expansion into geographies and new discoveries. In words of Wang and Chen et al. (2015), the daily attributes of primary centre around oversight and development serve as to fulfil long and short term business plans of company in regard to business plans. It holds responsible for every processes to recruit, attract and retain high level talent. The recruitment firmly depends on improving recruiting plans in order to generate robust pipeline that serves to facilitate needs of facility hiring. It is prompted on generating training, education as well as best practices to officers regarding hiring techniques and interviewing.
b. Recruitment process with examples
In opinion of Demire (2014), recruitment primarily refers to overall method of short listing, attracting, selecting and appointing appropriate candidates for jobs within the organization. Technologies based on internet supports all recruitment aspects that have served to become widespread. Basic steps that are certain relative to any hiring process include:
- Identifying need for hiring: Positions serves to be recently vacated or newly formed. In each case, the hired staff must meet to provide a prioritized list relative to job requirements including characteristics, qualifications and experience expected from candidate.
- Plan: It’s significant that each of those involved in decision of hiring agrees to steps, process and channels of communication to be applied. This plan must include a recruitment plan, timeline, selection committee, interview questions and also instructions regarding taking notes.
Q5) a. Steps in regard to Organizational change
Change affects most significant asset that is losing of employees. From this context, losing employees proves costly because of related recruitment costs and time indulged in speeding up of employees. A movement to change plan supports smooth transition ensuring employees for guiding through change journey. Three important steps in this concern are:
- Determining effects: Reviewing significant impact on every business unit and assessing how it prompts to cascade through organizational structure. This information serves to be blueprint for support and training that is required to mitigate the effects.
- Developing communication strategy: Every employees focus on attributing change journey. In this regard, the two steps highlighted in order to commend.
b. Reasons for resistance reduction
Job Loss is the primitive reason for major reason that employees focus on to change workplace. Another significant to this serves to be poor engagement and communication. In words of Warr and Bindl (2014), poor engagement and lack in communication skills has served to solve all its ills to a possible extent. Besides this, Lack of trust among leaders disrupts company’s work process. Another significant towards it is implementation of change in regard to various stages. This unsettles the working structure as far as business organization of company is concerned.
It is thereby finally concluded that management of human resource refers to strategic approach relative to effective ordering of people as far as organizations business structure is concerned. HR department’s holds responsibility for overseeing benefits design of employee, development and training, performance appraisal as well as rewarding. The basic purpose of human resources is to ensure organizations achievement to success through employee’s efforts and skills. They handle organization’s human capital and relatively focus on implementing processes and policies. Thus, they show specialization in employee relations, training, recruiting, and recruiting specialists. Employee association in this regard deals with employees concern relative to broken policies. HR serves to be a product of human association’s movement which was dominated initially through transaction work that includes administration benefits and payroll relative to this process.
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